Higher education plays a vital role in the development of a country, as it is considered an effective means of building a knowledge-based society. In India, higher education provided by universities faces challenges of access, equity and quality. The Government of India has taken various initiatives over time to improve access to higher education by adopting state-specific strategies and to enhance the relevance of higher education through curriculum reforms, curriculum professionals, networks , adoption of information technology and distance learning, and governance reforms. However, in terms of gross enrollment ratio (TBM), India still lags behind the world average and emerging markets such as Brazil and China.
India’s higher education system has established itself as the largest system in the world in terms of number of institutions and the third in terms of student enrollment (after China and the United States). While several new institutions have emerged in recent years, and private sector participation has increased significantly, concerns remain about the quality of education provided to students.
Knowledge is power today. The more knowledge you have, the stronger you will be. However, India continues to face great challenges. Despite growing investments in education, 25% of the population remains illiterate. The quality of education in India, whether in primary school or higher education, is considerably poor. Indian post-secondary institutions occupy only 7% of India’s college-age population, 25% of apprenticeships in the country are vacant, and 57% of university professors do not have a master’s or doctorate. What is needed, however, is greater transparency and accountability, the role of universities and colleges in the new millennium, and new scientific research on how people learn is paramount. Therefore, India provides other countries with a highly skilled workforce. It is very easy for India to transfer our land from a developing country to a developed country.
Technology will play a larger role in transforming higher education delivered by universities to the tertiary level. The tools help create a highly collaborative and personalized social environment with innovative solutions that enhance the way students learn, communicate, collaborate, and study on and off campus.
There is a growing trend to create a digital library to create a digital learning environment for students. The digital version of the books, embedded in text, images, as well as videos, simulations, and visualizations, helps students learn concepts interactively. The National Mission for Education through ICT plans to generate new content for online courses for the training of UG, PG and PhD. Efforts are already underway to prepare course content for 130 courses (UG and PG).
Higher education is a purely content-based game in which educational content is delivered through the innovative use of ICT. Universities have a growing tendency to broadcast content on radio, television and satellite
Many Indian universities are considering free technology-based access to educational resources. AICTE – National Library of Engineering and Digital Technology of India (AICTE – INDEST) is a consortium created by the Ministry of Human Resources to improve access and achieve annual savings in access to bibliographic databases. UGC also launched its digital library
The advent of Web 2.0 and social media like blogs and wikis, as well as new online video repository and distribution sites like YouTube, iTunes U, and Big Think, are driving a new trend in higher education. The advent of smartphones such as the iPhone and other smart devices has enhanced mobile learning (known as m-learning). These technologies are creating new channels for content delivery, the expansion of online video, and podcasting. With the introduction of virtual reality websites like Second Life, higher education institutions have created new places for class gatherings and study.
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