The University Grants Commission (UGC) has identified 21 fake universities and educational institutions function in different parts of the country in contravention of the UGC Act, 1956. This information was given by the Minister of State for Human Resource Development Smt. D. Purandeswari, in a written reply to a question, in the Lok Sabha today. Out of the 21 fake universities and institutes, 8 are in Uttar Pradesh, 6 in Delhi and one each in Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) has also identified 350 unapproved institutions running technical and management courses/programmes in violation of the AICTE Regulations. Out of these 350 unapproved institutions, 75 each are in Delhi and Maharashtra, 52 in Andhra Pradesh, 34 in West Bengal, 30 in Uttar Pradesh, 27 in Karnataka, 17 in Haryana, 14 in Tamil Nadu, 9 in Chandigarh, 4 in Gujarat, 3 in Punjab, 2 each in Bihar, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Goa, and one each in Uttarakhand and Kerala. The name of such fake universities and unapproved technical institutions has been included in the list maintained by the UGC and the AICTE, respectively and is placed on their respective official websites for information to the students and general public. Further, the state and union territory governments have been requested to take action under Indian Penal Code against these fake/unapproved universities and institutions. A legislative proposal to prohibit unfair practices in higher educational institutions has been already introduced in the parliament.